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Both halves, and any overtime, begin with kick-offs — the kicking team is decided by a coin toss see below.

In the NFL, an automatic timeout is called by the officials when there are two minutes left in both the second and the fourth quarters, and overtime; this is most commonly referred to as the two-minute warning.

No such warning is normally given in amateur football, though if there is no visible stadium clock, the referee will give a two-minute warning four minutes in high school.

If a game is tied at the end of four quarters, overtime is played. In overtime, the coin is tossed to determine which team will possess the ball first.

The winner of the coin toss can choose to give the ball or receive the ball. If the first possession results in a field goal, the other team is given possession to match or better the field goal; therefore continuing the game.

If the first possession results in a touchdown or safety, the scoring team wins. During the regular season in the NFL, one overtime period is played with each team receiving two time outs.

If both teams are tied after the minute overtime, the game officially ends in a tie. In the playoffs, minute overtime periods continue until a winner is determined.

Overtime follows a three-minute intermission after the end of the regulation game. Prior to start of overtime, a coin flip is performed in which the captain of the visiting team calls the toss.

The team that wins the coin flip has the option either to receive the kickoff or choose the side of the field they wish to defend.

The previous occurrence was one week earlier, on September 9, Prior to the playoffs, the overtime winner was simply the first team to score any points; [3] however, the rules were changed to reduce the apparent advantage obtained by the team that won the overtime coin toss.

Under the prior rules, the team that won the coin toss would usually elect to receive the ball, then gain just enough yardage to win the game by kicking a field goal without the other team ever touching the ball.

Denver won the game on the first play in overtime, an yard touchdown pass from Tim Tebow to Demaryius Thomas. The rule was formally adopted for the season, [5] and the first game in which both teams scored in overtime was a 43—37 victory by the Houston Texans over the Jacksonville Jaguars on November 18, The rules for overtime changed for the — season and were tweaked again for the — season.

Thus, if Team A has the first possession of overtime and scores a touchdown and converts their kick thus being 7 points ahead of Team B , Team A would then kick off to Team B In the NFL, the game would have ended with the touchdown, without a conversion being attempted.

Team B would have to match or exceed the 7 point difference within this ensuing possession; exceeding it would end the game immediately, while matching the difference would result in a kickoff to Team A.

From this point, the overtime is sudden death. The defunct United Football League had also used this rule. The defunct World Football League , in its first season of , used an overtime system more analogous to the system long used in international soccer.

In college and high school football, an overtime procedure the Kansas plan ensures that each team has equal opportunity to score. The losing team will have the first option in any subsequent even-numbered overtime.

In the first overtime, the team with first series attempts to score either a touchdown or a field goal; their possession ends when either a touchdown or a field goal have been scored, they turn the ball over via a fumble or an interception, or they fail to gain a first down.

After a touchdown, a team may attempt either an extra-point or a two-point conversion. However, if the team on defense during the first series recovers a fumble and returns it for a touchdown, or returns an interception for a touchdown, the defensive team wins the game.

This is the only way for a college overtime game to end without both teams having possession. If the score remains tied after both teams have completed a series, a second overtime begins.

If the score remains tied after two overtimes, teams scoring touchdowns are required to attempt a two-point conversion from the third overtime on.

In high school football, individual state associations can choose any overtime format they want, or even elect to not play overtime at all ties stand in this case.

However, most states use the Kansas Plan. In a majority of states, each team is granted possession of the ball at the yard line, meaning that a team cannot make a first down without scoring except via a defensive penalty that carries an automatic first down such as defensive pass interference or roughing the passer.

As is the case with the college overtime rule, the team that wins the coin toss will have the choice as to whether to take the ball first or second, or decide at which end of the field the overtime will be played.

The other major difference between overtime in college football and high school football is that in high school football, if the defense forces a turnover, the ball is dead immediately, thus eliminating the possibility of scoring.

However, in Texas , the college overtime rule is used, as both the University Interscholastic League , which governs interscholastic activities for Texas public high schools, and the Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools , the largest analogous body for Texas private high schools, play by NCAA football rules with a few modifications for the high school level.

Massachusetts also is another state that uses NCAA-style overtime rules. The defunct XFL used a modified Kansas Plan which, upon the first team scoring, required the opponent to score the same or greater number of points in the same or fewer downs i.

Each team started at the yard line, but like high school, there were no opportunities for first downs. The league also banned field goals except on a fourth down.

Three minutes before the start of the game, the referee meets with captains from both teams for a coin toss. The visiting team calls the toss.

The winner of the toss may defer their choice to the start of the second half, or they may take first choice of:. At the start of the second half, the team that did not choose first either because they deferred their choice or because they lost the toss gets the first choice of options.

If a game goes to overtime, a coin toss is held before the start of overtime, but tosses are not held before the start of subsequent overtime periods.

In college, for example, the loser of the toss to start overtime has first choice in the second overtime period. In high school, the coin toss may be held between the captains or coaches earlier before the start of the game.

At three minutes before kickoff, the captains meet for a simulated coin toss, where the referee announces the results of the earlier toss.

The XFL did not implement a coin toss; instead an event took place called the "opening scramble", in which one player from each team fought to recover a football 20 yards away to determine possession.

Both players lined up side-by-side on one of the yard lines, with the ball being placed at the yard line. At the whistle, the two players would run toward the ball and attempt to gain possession; whichever player gained possession first was allowed to choose possession as if he had won a coin toss in other leagues.

The rules vary from the college level to the professional level. In the NFL, unless you are tagged by an opposing player or give yourself up, you are not down.

A player carrying the ball the runner is downed when any of the following occurs:. The majority of a football game takes place on plays, or downs , that begin at the line of scrimmage.

The officials spot the ball place it in a designated spot on the field on the line of scrimmage and declare it ready for play. The width of the spotted football defines the width of the neutral zone , an area of the field no player other than the snapper may position himself in or above before the snap.

Each team has its own line of scrimmage, thought of as a vertical plane from sideline to sideline that passes through the point of the ball nearest its own goal line.

A typical offense is made up of a quarterback , five offensive linemen , two wide receivers , a running back , a fullback , and a tight end , however teams will vary their personnel on the field to fit any given play.

A quarterback is essentially the leader of the offense. It is most often their responsibility to pass along the play called to the rest of the players in the huddle before any given play.

A quarterback is the primary ball handler on offense. It is their responsibility to call the snap count for the ball to enter play.

Once the ball is hiked into play, it is their job to either hand the ball off to one of their running backs, or scout the field for an open receiver to throw the ball to.

In some instances, the quarterback will run the ball themselves. A quarterback is guarded by their offensive linemen. The offensive line is made up of a left and right tackle , a left and right guard , and a center.

An offensive line has two different jobs. When the offense runs a pass play, it is their job to guard the quarterback from the defense that are rushing.

When the offense runs a run play, it is their job to clear a path for the running back to run through. The running back also has multiple roles.

They will either take the ball from the quarterback and run, move up and help the offensive line block, or go out and catch a pass. While the role of the fullback is deteriorating currently among professional leagues, it is their primary responsibility to lead the running back.

Running backs and fullbacks are sometimes also called a halfback, a wingback, or a slotback. Like the running back, the tight end also has multiple roles.

They will either help the offensive line protect the quarterback, block on run plays, or run or catch the ball themselves.

The wide receivers primary role is to run out into the field of play and catch the ball, although they will also block in some instances. The players on offense must arrange themselves in a formation , all behind their line of scrimmage that is, on their side of the ball.

For reasons of safety and competitive balance, there are strict rules which define the way in which the offensive players may line up. Seven players must line up directly on the line of scrimmage while four players line up behind the line of scrimmage.

Within this formation, there are six eligible receivers who may receive a forward pass during play. These eligible receivers are either the running back, fullback, tight end, or wide receivers.

The remaining five linemen, often called interior linemen do not normally handle the ball during a play. Because of these rules, various leagues of American football have enacted strict rules of uniform numbering so officials may more easily judge which players were eligible and which were not at the start of a play.

For example, in college football , ineligible players wear numbers 50—79, while eligible receivers wear 1—49 or 80— Even within this structure, offenses can still present a wide number of formations, so long as they maintain the "seven and four" arrangement.

Linebackers line up behind the defensive line but in front of the defensive backfield. They are divided into two types: Linebackers are the defensive leaders and call the defensive plays.

Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game.

The defensive backfield , often called the secondary, consists of cornerbacks CB and safeties S. Safeties are themselves divided into free safeties FS and strong safeties SS.

Safeties are the last line of defense, and are responsible for stopping deep passing plays as well as running plays. The special teams unit is responsible for all kicking plays.

Three positions are specific to the field goal and PAT point-after-touchdown unit: There is not usually a holder on kickoffs, because the ball is kicked off of a tee; however, a holder may be used in certain situations, such as if wind is preventing the ball from remaining upright on the tee.

The player on the receiving team who catches the ball is known as the kickoff returner KR. The positions specific to punt plays are the punter P , long snapper, upback and gunner.

The long snapper snaps the football directly to the punter, who then drops and kicks it before it hits the ground.

Gunners line up split outside the line and race down the field, aiming to tackle the punt returner PR — the player that catches the punt. Upbacks line up a short distance behind the line of scrimmage, providing additional protection to the punter.

In American football, the winner is the team that has scored the most points at the end of the game. There are multiple ways to score in a football game.

The touchdown TD , worth six points, is the most valuable scoring play in American football. A touchdown is scored when a live ball is advanced into, caught in, or recovered in the end zone of the opposing team.

A PAT is most commonly attempted from the two- or three-yard line, depending on the level of play. If scored by a placekick or dropkick through the goal posts, it is worth one point, and is typically called the extra point.

In such a case, a successful attempt is called the two-point conversion [55] and is worth two points. For the season, the NFL adopted a rules on PATs that stated during an extra point the placekick must be snapped from the yard line and on extra points if the kick is blocked and the opposing team returns it into the end zone or if during a two-point conversion the ball is fumbled or intercepted and returned to the end zone the opposing team will score two points.

No points are awarded on a failed extra point or two-point conversion attempt, although under a rare set of circumstances it is possible to score a safety, worth one point, if the defense takes the ball back into its own end zone and is downed there.

A safety is scored when the ball carrier is tackled in their own end zone. Safeties are worth two points, which are awarded to the defense.

Lines marked along the ends and sides of the field are known respectively as the end lines and sidelines , and goal lines are marked 10 yards 9. Weighted pylons are placed on the inside corner of the intersections of the goal lines and end lines.

White markings on the field identify the distance from the end zone. Inbound lines, or hash marks , are short parallel lines that mark off 1 yard 0.

Yard lines , which can run the width of the field, are marked every 5 yards 4. A one-yard-wide line is placed at each end of the field; this line is marked at the center of the two-yard line in professional play and at the three-yard line in college play.

Numerals that display the distance from the closest goal line in yards are placed on both sides of the field every ten yards. Goalposts are located at the center of the plane of each of the two end lines.

The crossbar of these posts is ten feet 3. Goal posts are padded at the base, and orange ribbons are normally placed at the tip of each upright. The football itself is an oval ball, similar to the balls used in rugby or Australian rules football.

Football games last for a total of 60 minutes in professional and college play and are divided into two-halves of 30 minutes and four-quarters of 15 minutes.

The losing team, unless the winning team decides to defer, is allowed to choose the option the winning team did not select, and receives the option to receive, kick, or select a goal to defend to begin the second half.

Most teams choose to receive or defer, because choosing to kick the ball to start the game would allow the other team to choose which goal to defend.

Games last longer than their defined length due to play stoppages — the average NFL game lasts slightly over three hours.

An operator is responsible for starting, stopping and operating the game clock based on the direction of the appropriate official. If the play clock expires before the ball has been snapped or free-kicked, a delay of game foul is called on the offense.

The play clock is set to 40 seconds in professional and college football and to 25 seconds in high school play or following certain administrative stoppages in the former levels of play.

There are two main ways that the offense can advance the ball: In a typical play, the quarterback calls the play, and the center passes the ball backwards and under their legs to the quarterback in a process known as the snap.

The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball or runs with it. The play ends when the player with the ball is tackled or goes out of bounds, or a pass hits the ground without a player having caught it.

A forward pass can only be legally attempted if the passer is behind the line of scrimmage, and only one forward pass can be attempted per down.

The offense is given a series of four plays, known as downs. If the offense advances ten or more yards in the four downs, they are awarded a new set of four downs.

If they fail to advance ten yards, possession of the football is turned over to the defense. In most situations, if the offense reaches their fourth down they will punt the ball to the other team, which forces them to begin their drive from further down the field; if they are in field goal range , they might also attempt to score a field goal.

There are two categories of kicks in football: On a kickoff, the ball is placed at the yard line of the kicking team in professional and college play and at the yard line in high school play.

The ball may be drop-kicked or place-kicked. If a place kick is chosen, the ball can be placed on the ground or on a tee, and a holder may be used in either case.

On a safety kick, the kicking team kicks the ball from their own yard line. They can punt, drop-kick or place-kick the ball, but a tee may not be used in professional play.

Any member of the receiving team may catch or advance the ball, and the ball may be recovered by the kicking team once it has gone at least ten yards and has touched the ground or has been touched by any member of the receiving team.

The three types of scrimmage kicks are place kicks, drop kicks, and punts. Only place kicks and drop kicks can score points.

If it is touched or recovered by the kicking team beyond this line, it becomes dead at the spot where it was touched. This prohibits the defense from blocking into or tackling the receiver, but the play ends as soon as the ball is caught and the ball may not be advanced.

Officials are responsible for enforcing game rules and monitoring the clock. All officials carry a whistle and wear black-and-white striped shirts and black hats except for the referee, whose hat is white.

Each carries a weighted yellow flag that is thrown to the ground to signal that a foul has been called. An official who spots multiple fouls will throw their hat as a secondary signal.

Another set of officials, the chain crew , are responsible for moving the chains. The chains, consisting of two large sticks with a yard-long chain between them, are used to measure for a first down.

The chain crew stays on the sidelines during the game, but if requested by the officials they will briefly bring the chains on to the field to measure.

A typical chain crew will have at least three people — two members of the chain crew will hold either of the two sticks, while a third will hold the down marker.

The down marker, a large stick with a dial on it, is flipped after each play to indicate the current down, and is typically moved to the approximate spot of the ball.

The chain crew system has been used for over years and is considered to be an accurate measure of distance, rarely subject to criticism from either side.

Football is a full-contact sport, and injuries are relatively common. Most injuries occur during training sessions, particularly ones that involve contact between players.

At a minimum players must wear a football helmet and a set of shoulder pads , but individual leagues may require additional padding such as thigh pads and guards, knee pads, chest protectors, and mouthguards.

The most common types of injuries are strains , sprains , bruises , fractures, dislocations , and concussions.

More specifically, each year a player played tackle football under age 12 predicted earlier onset of cognitive, behavioral, and mood problems by an average of two and a half years.

College football is the third-most popular sport in the United States, behind professional baseball and professional football.

High school football is the most popular sport in the United States played by boys; over 1. The NFHS is the largest organization for high school football, with member associations in all 50 states as well as the District of Columbia.

USA Football is the governing body for youth and amateur football, [] and Pop Warner Little Scholars is the largest organization for youth football.

Several professional football leagues have been formed as rival leagues to the NFL. An earlier league, the All-America Football Conference , was in play from to Other attempts to start rival leagues have been far less successful.

The World Football League WFL played for two seasons, in and , but faced monetary issues so severe that the league could not pay its players. In its second and final season the WFL attempted to establish a stable credit rating, but the league disbanded before its second season could be completed.

American football leagues exist throughout the world, but the game has yet to achieve the international success and popularity of baseball and basketball.

All of these countries rank far below the United States, which is dominant at the international level. Football is not an Olympic sport , but it was a demonstration sport at the Summer Olympics.

American football also has the issue of global visibility. Professional football has ranked as the most popular sport in the poll since , when it surpassed baseball for the first time.

In a study, the NCAA estimated there were around 1. American football also plays a significant role in American culture.

The day on which the Super Bowl is held is considered a de facto national holiday , [] and in parts of the country like Texas , the sport has been compared to a religion.

Merit is rewarded, not punished. Masculinity is celebrated, not feminized. People of various beliefs and backgrounds — a melting pot, if you will — must unify for a common goal for the team to be successful".

The safety of the sport has also sparked national controversy in American popular culture. It is often received as "overly aggressive", and defamiliarized in popular culture.

Bennet Omalu , a neuropathologist who was the first to discover and publish findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE.

American football was the second-most popular sport in Mexico in the s, with the game being particularly popular in colleges.

American football is the fifth most popular sport in Mexico and the country has the highest rating of the NFL outside the United States.

Japan was introduced to the sport in by Paul Rusch , a teacher and Christian missionary who helped establish football teams at three universities in Tokyo.

Play was halted during World War II, but began to grow in popularity again after the war. As of [update] , there are more than high school football teams in Japan, with over 15, participants, and over teams play in the Kantoh Collegiate Football Association KCFA.

Europe is a major target for expansion of the game by football organizers. In the United Kingdom in the s, the sport was fairly popular, with the Super Bowl being watched by over 4 million people about 1 out of every 14 Britons.

Super Bowl viewership has also rebounded, with over 4. The sport is played in European countries such as Switzerland, which has American football clubs in every major city, [] and Germany, where the sport has around 45, registered amateur players.

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The three types of scrimmage kicks are place kicks, drop kicks, and punts. Only place kicks and drop kicks can score points.

If it is touched or recovered by the kicking team beyond this line, it becomes dead at the spot where it was touched.

This prohibits the defense from blocking into or tackling the receiver, but the play ends as soon as the ball is caught and the ball may not be advanced.

Officials are responsible for enforcing game rules and monitoring the clock. All officials carry a whistle and wear black-and-white striped shirts and black hats except for the referee, whose hat is white.

Each carries a weighted yellow flag that is thrown to the ground to signal that a foul has been called. An official who spots multiple fouls will throw their hat as a secondary signal.

Another set of officials, the chain crew , are responsible for moving the chains. The chains, consisting of two large sticks with a yard-long chain between them, are used to measure for a first down.

The chain crew stays on the sidelines during the game, but if requested by the officials they will briefly bring the chains on to the field to measure.

A typical chain crew will have at least three people — two members of the chain crew will hold either of the two sticks, while a third will hold the down marker.

The down marker, a large stick with a dial on it, is flipped after each play to indicate the current down, and is typically moved to the approximate spot of the ball.

The chain crew system has been used for over years and is considered to be an accurate measure of distance, rarely subject to criticism from either side.

Football is a full-contact sport, and injuries are relatively common. Most injuries occur during training sessions, particularly ones that involve contact between players.

At a minimum players must wear a football helmet and a set of shoulder pads , but individual leagues may require additional padding such as thigh pads and guards, knee pads, chest protectors, and mouthguards.

The most common types of injuries are strains , sprains , bruises , fractures, dislocations , and concussions. More specifically, each year a player played tackle football under age 12 predicted earlier onset of cognitive, behavioral, and mood problems by an average of two and a half years.

College football is the third-most popular sport in the United States, behind professional baseball and professional football. High school football is the most popular sport in the United States played by boys; over 1.

The NFHS is the largest organization for high school football, with member associations in all 50 states as well as the District of Columbia.

USA Football is the governing body for youth and amateur football, [] and Pop Warner Little Scholars is the largest organization for youth football.

Several professional football leagues have been formed as rival leagues to the NFL. An earlier league, the All-America Football Conference , was in play from to Other attempts to start rival leagues have been far less successful.

The World Football League WFL played for two seasons, in and , but faced monetary issues so severe that the league could not pay its players.

In its second and final season the WFL attempted to establish a stable credit rating, but the league disbanded before its second season could be completed.

American football leagues exist throughout the world, but the game has yet to achieve the international success and popularity of baseball and basketball.

All of these countries rank far below the United States, which is dominant at the international level. Football is not an Olympic sport , but it was a demonstration sport at the Summer Olympics.

American football also has the issue of global visibility. Professional football has ranked as the most popular sport in the poll since , when it surpassed baseball for the first time.

In a study, the NCAA estimated there were around 1. American football also plays a significant role in American culture. The day on which the Super Bowl is held is considered a de facto national holiday , [] and in parts of the country like Texas , the sport has been compared to a religion.

Merit is rewarded, not punished. Masculinity is celebrated, not feminized. People of various beliefs and backgrounds — a melting pot, if you will — must unify for a common goal for the team to be successful".

The safety of the sport has also sparked national controversy in American popular culture. It is often received as "overly aggressive", and defamiliarized in popular culture.

Bennet Omalu , a neuropathologist who was the first to discover and publish findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE.

American football was the second-most popular sport in Mexico in the s, with the game being particularly popular in colleges.

American football is the fifth most popular sport in Mexico and the country has the highest rating of the NFL outside the United States. Japan was introduced to the sport in by Paul Rusch , a teacher and Christian missionary who helped establish football teams at three universities in Tokyo.

Play was halted during World War II, but began to grow in popularity again after the war. As of [update] , there are more than high school football teams in Japan, with over 15, participants, and over teams play in the Kantoh Collegiate Football Association KCFA.

Europe is a major target for expansion of the game by football organizers. In the United Kingdom in the s, the sport was fairly popular, with the Super Bowl being watched by over 4 million people about 1 out of every 14 Britons.

Super Bowl viewership has also rebounded, with over 4. The sport is played in European countries such as Switzerland, which has American football clubs in every major city, [] and Germany, where the sport has around 45, registered amateur players.

But in these countries American football has not yet reached the same level of popularity it has, for example, in North America. Rumors were that a Pro Bowl edition could be held there.

One of the reasons of that boom in audience is the placekicker of Kansas City Chiefs , Cairo Santos , the first Brazilian player to reach some worldwide success in the sport.

To , a strongest league will get start in June, including 32 teams around the country, in 4 conferences. In other countries of South America there was a very important evolution with regard to American Football.

In was begun the practice of this sport in Argentina. Currently there are three American Football Leagues in that country: In addition there are teams in the formation stage in several provinces, such as in the province of Santa Fe.

Canadian football , the predominant form of football in Canada, is closely related to American football — both sports developed from rugby, and the two sports are considered to be the chief variants of gridiron football.

Punting is illegal, and kickoffs are attempted from the goal line. Large overhead nets deflect forward passes and kicks that hit them, and deflected kicks are live balls that may be recovered by either team.

Like in arena football, teams in indoor football leagues play in arenas, but games are only attended by a small number of fans, and most players are semi-professional athletes.

Indoor football leagues are unstable, with franchises regularly moving from one league to another or merging with other teams, and teams or entire leagues dissolving entirely.

There are several non-contact variants of American football, such as flag football. A game of touch football may require that the player be touched with either one or two hands to be considered down, depending on the rules used.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the American variation of gridiron football. For a broader usage of the name, see American football disambiguation.

Larry Fitzgerald in blue catches a pass while Cortland Finnegan in red plays defense at the Pro Bowl. Team sport ball game. Football leather prolate spheroid Football helmet Pads shoulder and knee.

History of American football. Official American football , Chain crew , and Penalty gridiron football.

American football protective equipment , Concussions in American football , and Chronic traumatic encephalopathy. American football in the United States.

Canadian football , Arena football , and Flag football. American football strategy College football Comparison of American football and rugby union Comparison of American football and rugby league Concussions in American football Fantasy football American Glossary of American football List of American football players List of American football stadiums by capacity List of leagues of American and Canadian football Pro Football Hall of Fame Steroid use in American football.

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In the NFL, an automatic timeout is called by the officials when there are two minutes left in both the second and the fourth quarters, and overtime; this is most commonly referred to as the two-minute warning.

No such warning is normally given in amateur football, though if there is no visible stadium clock, the referee will give a two-minute warning four minutes in high school.

If a game is tied at the end of four quarters, overtime is played. In overtime, the coin is tossed to determine which team will possess the ball first.

The winner of the coin toss can choose to give the ball or receive the ball. If the first possession results in a field goal, the other team is given possession to match or better the field goal; therefore continuing the game.

If the first possession results in a touchdown or safety, the scoring team wins. During the regular season in the NFL, one overtime period is played with each team receiving two time outs.

If both teams are tied after the minute overtime, the game officially ends in a tie. In the playoffs, minute overtime periods continue until a winner is determined.

Overtime follows a three-minute intermission after the end of the regulation game. Prior to start of overtime, a coin flip is performed in which the captain of the visiting team calls the toss.

The team that wins the coin flip has the option either to receive the kickoff or choose the side of the field they wish to defend.

The previous occurrence was one week earlier, on September 9, Prior to the playoffs, the overtime winner was simply the first team to score any points; [3] however, the rules were changed to reduce the apparent advantage obtained by the team that won the overtime coin toss.

Under the prior rules, the team that won the coin toss would usually elect to receive the ball, then gain just enough yardage to win the game by kicking a field goal without the other team ever touching the ball.

Denver won the game on the first play in overtime, an yard touchdown pass from Tim Tebow to Demaryius Thomas. The rule was formally adopted for the season, [5] and the first game in which both teams scored in overtime was a 43—37 victory by the Houston Texans over the Jacksonville Jaguars on November 18, The rules for overtime changed for the — season and were tweaked again for the — season.

Thus, if Team A has the first possession of overtime and scores a touchdown and converts their kick thus being 7 points ahead of Team B , Team A would then kick off to Team B In the NFL, the game would have ended with the touchdown, without a conversion being attempted.

Team B would have to match or exceed the 7 point difference within this ensuing possession; exceeding it would end the game immediately, while matching the difference would result in a kickoff to Team A.

From this point, the overtime is sudden death. The defunct United Football League had also used this rule. The defunct World Football League , in its first season of , used an overtime system more analogous to the system long used in international soccer.

In college and high school football, an overtime procedure the Kansas plan ensures that each team has equal opportunity to score.

The losing team will have the first option in any subsequent even-numbered overtime. In the first overtime, the team with first series attempts to score either a touchdown or a field goal; their possession ends when either a touchdown or a field goal have been scored, they turn the ball over via a fumble or an interception, or they fail to gain a first down.

After a touchdown, a team may attempt either an extra-point or a two-point conversion. However, if the team on defense during the first series recovers a fumble and returns it for a touchdown, or returns an interception for a touchdown, the defensive team wins the game.

This is the only way for a college overtime game to end without both teams having possession. If the score remains tied after both teams have completed a series, a second overtime begins.

If the score remains tied after two overtimes, teams scoring touchdowns are required to attempt a two-point conversion from the third overtime on.

In high school football, individual state associations can choose any overtime format they want, or even elect to not play overtime at all ties stand in this case.

However, most states use the Kansas Plan. In a majority of states, each team is granted possession of the ball at the yard line, meaning that a team cannot make a first down without scoring except via a defensive penalty that carries an automatic first down such as defensive pass interference or roughing the passer.

As is the case with the college overtime rule, the team that wins the coin toss will have the choice as to whether to take the ball first or second, or decide at which end of the field the overtime will be played.

The other major difference between overtime in college football and high school football is that in high school football, if the defense forces a turnover, the ball is dead immediately, thus eliminating the possibility of scoring.

However, in Texas , the college overtime rule is used, as both the University Interscholastic League , which governs interscholastic activities for Texas public high schools, and the Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools , the largest analogous body for Texas private high schools, play by NCAA football rules with a few modifications for the high school level.

Massachusetts also is another state that uses NCAA-style overtime rules. The defunct XFL used a modified Kansas Plan which, upon the first team scoring, required the opponent to score the same or greater number of points in the same or fewer downs i.

Each team started at the yard line, but like high school, there were no opportunities for first downs. The league also banned field goals except on a fourth down.

Three minutes before the start of the game, the referee meets with captains from both teams for a coin toss. The visiting team calls the toss.

The winner of the toss may defer their choice to the start of the second half, or they may take first choice of:.

At the start of the second half, the team that did not choose first either because they deferred their choice or because they lost the toss gets the first choice of options.

If a game goes to overtime, a coin toss is held before the start of overtime, but tosses are not held before the start of subsequent overtime periods.

In college, for example, the loser of the toss to start overtime has first choice in the second overtime period. In high school, the coin toss may be held between the captains or coaches earlier before the start of the game.

At three minutes before kickoff, the captains meet for a simulated coin toss, where the referee announces the results of the earlier toss.

The XFL did not implement a coin toss; instead an event took place called the "opening scramble", in which one player from each team fought to recover a football 20 yards away to determine possession.

Both players lined up side-by-side on one of the yard lines, with the ball being placed at the yard line. At the whistle, the two players would run toward the ball and attempt to gain possession; whichever player gained possession first was allowed to choose possession as if he had won a coin toss in other leagues.

The rules vary from the college level to the professional level. In the NFL, unless you are tagged by an opposing player or give yourself up, you are not down.

A player carrying the ball the runner is downed when any of the following occurs:. The majority of a football game takes place on plays, or downs , that begin at the line of scrimmage.

The officials spot the ball place it in a designated spot on the field on the line of scrimmage and declare it ready for play.

The width of the spotted football defines the width of the neutral zone , an area of the field no player other than the snapper may position himself in or above before the snap.

Each team has its own line of scrimmage, thought of as a vertical plane from sideline to sideline that passes through the point of the ball nearest its own goal line.

A typical offense is made up of a quarterback , five offensive linemen , two wide receivers , a running back , a fullback , and a tight end , however teams will vary their personnel on the field to fit any given play.

A quarterback is essentially the leader of the offense. It is most often their responsibility to pass along the play called to the rest of the players in the huddle before any given play.

A quarterback is the primary ball handler on offense. It is their responsibility to call the snap count for the ball to enter play.

Once the ball is hiked into play, it is their job to either hand the ball off to one of their running backs, or scout the field for an open receiver to throw the ball to.

In some instances, the quarterback will run the ball themselves. A quarterback is guarded by their offensive linemen. The offensive line is made up of a left and right tackle , a left and right guard , and a center.

An offensive line has two different jobs. When the offense runs a pass play, it is their job to guard the quarterback from the defense that are rushing.

When the offense runs a run play, it is their job to clear a path for the running back to run through. The running back also has multiple roles.

They will either take the ball from the quarterback and run, move up and help the offensive line block, or go out and catch a pass.

While the role of the fullback is deteriorating currently among professional leagues, it is their primary responsibility to lead the running back.

Running backs and fullbacks are sometimes also called a halfback, a wingback, or a slotback. Like the running back, the tight end also has multiple roles.

They will either help the offensive line protect the quarterback, block on run plays, or run or catch the ball themselves.

The wide receivers primary role is to run out into the field of play and catch the ball, although they will also block in some instances.

The players on offense must arrange themselves in a formation , all behind their line of scrimmage that is, on their side of the ball.

For reasons of safety and competitive balance, there are strict rules which define the way in which the offensive players may line up.

Seven players must line up directly on the line of scrimmage while four players line up behind the line of scrimmage. Within this formation, there are six eligible receivers who may receive a forward pass during play.

These eligible receivers are either the running back, fullback, tight end, or wide receivers. The remaining five linemen, often called interior linemen do not normally handle the ball during a play.

Because of these rules, various leagues of American football have enacted strict rules of uniform numbering so officials may more easily judge which players were eligible and which were not at the start of a play.

For example, in college football , ineligible players wear numbers 50—79, while eligible receivers wear 1—49 or 80— Even within this structure, offenses can still present a wide number of formations, so long as they maintain the "seven and four" arrangement.

Receivers, for example, may play close to the other linemen or they may play some distance down the line of scrimmage, where they would sometimes be called split ends.

Of the four backs, they may play behind the linemen, or may play "split out" to provide additional wide receivers. These additional receivers can be flankers if they play split far wide, but still in the backfield or slot receivers if they play in the "slot" between the split end and the rest of the offensive line.

The players on defense may arrange themselves in any manner, as long as all players are "behind the line" that is, on the side of the line nearest their own end zone.

Players who line up opposite the offensive line are called defensive linemen , usually with one or two defensive tackles in the middle a single defensive tackle is often called the nose guard or nose tackle and with one defensive end on each side.

The defensive line is also most often the first set of players the opponent must get through should they choose to run the ball. Behind the linemen are the linebackers.

A linebackers job can be any number of things, including trying to rush the opposing teams quarterback, stopping the opponents running back on run plays, or covering the opponents tight end or wide receivers.

Positioned opposite the wide receivers are the cornerbacks. Their primary responsibility is to cover the wide receivers.

Farthest back from the line are the safeties , usually in the middle of the field behind the linebackers. The safeties are the last line of defense against the opponent.

The linemen and linebackers close to the line of scrimmage, are often referred to as playing "in the box". Players outside "the box" usually cornerbacks and safeties are collectively referred to as the "secondary".

A scrimmage down begins with a snap , where the center throws or hands the ball backward to one of the backs, usually the quarterback.

The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball, or runs with it himself.

The down ends when the ball becomes dead see below. The ball is typically next spotted where the ball became dead; however, if it became dead outside the hash marks, it is brought in on the same yard line to the nearest hash mark.

This spot becomes the line of scrimmage for the next play. In the case of an incomplete forward pass, the ball is returned to the spot where it was last snapped to begin the next play.

A fumbled ball that goes out of bounds is declared dead and possession remains with the team that most recently had control of the ball.

The nearest official typically blows his whistle after the ball becomes dead to alert the players that the down has already ended.

If the ball is alive and the official sounds an inadvertent whistle , then the ball still becomes dead, but the team in possession of the ball may elect to have the down replayed or take the spot where the ball was declared dead.

If the ball was loose from a fumble, then the ball can be put into play at the spot of the fumble. If the ball was in flight from a kick or a pass, then the down is always replayed.

A free kick is a down which does not occur from scrimmage. The kicking team begins behind the ball, while the receiving team must remain at least 10 yards downfield before the ball is kicked.

In the NFL Season, changes were made regarding kickoffs to limit injuries. Kickoffs were returned from the yard line to the yard line, repealing a rule change.

In addition, players on the kickoff coverage team cannot line up more than 5 yards behind the kickoff line, minimizing running starts and thus reducing the speed of collisions.

In most cases, the ball is kicked as far as possible typically 40 to 70 yards , after which a player of the receiving team is usually able to secure possession since the members of the kicking team cannot start downfield until after the ball is kicked.

Occasionally, for tactical reasons, the kicking team may instead choose to attempt an onside kick, in which the kicker tries to kick the ball along the ground just over the required yard distance in such a manner that one of his own teammates can recover the ball for the kicking side.

If it is touched before ten yards, the ball is dead and a re-kick or spot of the ball will be rewarded to the receiving team.

Once the ball carrier is downed, the play is whistled dead and the ball is placed by the officials at the point where the play ended; this spot then becomes the line of scrimmage for the ensuing play.

A kickoff that goes out of bounds anywhere other than the end zone before being touched by the receiving team is an illegal kick: A free kick is also used to restart the game following a safety.

The team that was trapped in its own end zone, therefore conceding two points to the other team, kicks the ball from its own yard line.

This can be a place kick in the NFL, a tee cannot be used , drop kick or punt. In the NFL and high school, a free kick may be taken on the play immediately after a fair catch ; see "fair catch kick" below.

The most common type of kick used is the place kick. For a place kick, the ball must first be snapped to a placeholder, who holds the ball upright on the ground with his fingertip so that it may be kicked.

Three points are scored if the ball crosses between the two upright posts and above the crossbar and remains over.

If a field goal is missed, the ball is returned to the original line of scrimmage in the NFL, to the spot of the kick; in high school, to the yard line if the ball enters the end zone, or otherwise where the ball becomes dead after the kick or to the yard line if that is further from the goal line, and possession is given to the other team.

If the ball does not go out of bounds, the other team may catch the kicked ball and attempt to advance it, but this is usually not advantageous.

One official is positioned under each goalpost; if either one rules the field goal no good, then the field goal is unsuccessful.

All officials carry a whistle and wear black-and-white striped shirts and black hats except for the referee, u21 em livestream hat is white. This page was last edited on 1 Februaryat These essential cookies may also be rooney alter for improvements, site europameister qualifikation and security. Retrieved December 3, aktuelle zeit kuala lumpur Barnwell makes his pick Brady, Belichick and Gronk. The defunct United Football League had also used this rule. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins. Players are constantly looking for ways to find an advantage that stretches the limitations imposed by the rules. Every scoring play will be reviewed now, which saves coaches from using up their challenges on close plays in the endzone. No such warning is normally ran american football in amateur football, though if there is no visible stadium clock, the referee will give a two-minute warning four minutes in high school. So kann konni konrad boxer Patriots-Pass-Rush gegen die Rams bestehen ksc vfb. Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game.

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